ПОРІВНЯЛЬНА ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА НАЦІОНАЛЬНО-ПОЛІТИЧНОГО РУХУ УКРАЇНЦІВ ТА ПОЛЯКІВ ГАЛИЧИНИ СЕРЕДИНИ ХІХ ст.
The article provides a comparative description of the Ukrainian and Polish national political movements of Galicia, which was formed under the influence of the revolutionary events of 1848-1849. and transformed under the constitutional reforms of the 1860s. The legal and ideological ideologies of political movements are determined by the key in the process of formation of the Polish-Ukrainian inter-ethnic confrontation, which, after the creation of the Galician Seym in 1861, acquired clear legal features. The prospects of the practical implementation of the legal ideas of Ukrainians and Poles are being studied.
The article gives a comparative description of Ukrainian and Polish national-political movements of Galicia, which were formed under the influence of the revolutionary events of 1848-1849 and transformed in the conditions of constitutional reforms of the 1860s. the revolutionary events of 1848-1849. the national movement had the best conditions for development. There was its rapid differentiation, which was based on the attitude to the "national issue". The legal and ideological ideologues of political currents are determined by the key in the process of formation of the Polish-Ukrainian inter-ethnic confrontation, which after the creation in 1861 of the Galician Seimas acquired clear legal features. Prospects of practical realization of legal ideas of Ukrainians and Poles are studied.
It is concluded that forces emerged among Ukrainian society that, on the basis of linguistic and cultural heritage, formulated the idea of the unification of Ukrainian lands, which had a decisive influence on the further development of the national-political movement and Ukrainian-Polish relations in Galicia.
Characteristic features of the Ukrainian currents – Russophiles and Populists, were based on their ideological stereotypes were two types of outlook, the bearers of which were spoken by different generations. Together with the problem of national identity, the Polish factor occupied a prominent place in relations between Russophiles and Populists. The attitude to the Poles was determined by the depth of the national question. Russophiles and populists, though representing different generations of Ukrainians, saw the development of national rights as a fundamental task, while adhering to different mechanisms for achieving these rights.
Among Polish political groups in Eastern Galicia. During the study period, three trends were clearly distinguished. Actually, the Polish national movement of Galicia, unlike the Ukrainian one, developed more dynamically. The attitude of Polish politicians to Ukrainians was also a key factor in their internal confrontation. Polish political suffering was also heterogeneous. They were united by the denial of the «Ukrainian question», which ultimately exacerbated the ethnic situation in the country.