ІНСТИТУЦІЙНІ ЗАСАДИ ФУНКЦІОНУВАННЯ ПІДПРИЄМСТВ АГРАРНОГО СЕКТОРУ ЄС В УМОВАХ СТАЛОГО РОЗВИТКУ
The article presents the principles of agricultural activity in the EU. The principles of sustainable development of agriculture are described. The directions of the Common Agrarian Policy of Sustainable Development of EU Agriculture are outlined. The institutional features of the functioning of agricultural enterprises are analyzed.
The principles of agriculture changed dramatically after the end of World War II. The productivity of agricultural production has increased due to the emergence of new technologies, mechanization, increasing the volume of chemicals, specialization and areas of government policy, which have helped to maximize production and reduce food prices. These changes have allowed fewer agricultural enterprises to produce more at lower prices.
Although these processes have had many positive effects and reduced risks in agriculture, they are also accompanied by significant losses and costs, including: the decline of family farms; neglect of living and working conditions of agricultural workers; the spread of new pathogenic microorganisms that have caused new threats to human health and safety; disintegration of rural communities; depletion of the upper layers of the soil; groundwater and air pollution; increase in greenhouse gas emissions.
In contrast to these processes, over the last four decades, ideas have been highlighted and innovative alternative solutions in line with sustainable agricultural development have been increasingly implemented and adopted in various food production systems.
Sustainable development of agriculture is based on the principle of the need to meet the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to ensure their livelihoods and meet their own needs. Thus, long-term management of natural and human resources is equally important for short-term economic benefits. Human resource management involves taking into account social needs and responsibilities, such as the working and living conditions of workers, the needs of rural communities, and the health and safety of consumers, both today and in the future. Management of land and natural resources involves maintaining and improving the quality of these resources and their use in a way that allows them to recover in the future.
Sustainable agriculture in the CAP. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/food-farming-fisheries/sustainability/sustainable-cap_en.
Фонди сільського розвитку: досвід ЄС та України. URL: http://www.auu.org.ua/media/publications/428/files/korunets_2017_09_21_15_15_58_760536.pdf
Eurostat: Your key to European statistics. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/home?
The Small Farmers Scheme. European Commission. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/food-farming-fisheries/key_policies/documents/small-farmers-scheme_en.pdf.
Farming in the EU. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/research-topic/farming-eu
Redistributive payment. European Commission. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/food-farming-fisheries/key_policies/documents/ds-dp-redistributive-payment_en.pdf.